Der Weinbau der Leibeigenen in den Herrschaften des Pécsvárader Stiftungsdistrikts in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts
In the first half of the 19th century, there were no more home-grown vineyards in the estates of the Pécsvárad public foundation district. It was in the interest of the lords to encourage the serfs to grow grapes and to plant grapes, as the wine was needed. The vineyards of the serfs can be divided into three major groups on the basis of the payment that are the following: contributory vineyard, non-contributory vineyard, planted on leased land. Farmers in many cases have initiated the utilization of arable land, pastures, meadows and forests by planting vines. The favorable taxation and tax exemption of serf vineyards encouraged farmers to grow and plant vineyards. For serfs, however, the most obvious advantage of the vineyard was the freedom of the estate. The serfs had to seek the consent of the manor for contracts relating to the ownership of the vineyard, but the approval was almost never refused by the manor. The serf vineyard meant such a value that – unless it was necessary – they did not want to get rid of it permanently. The vineyard regulations laid down the rights and obligations of vineyard owners. The serfs were obliged to cultivate the vineyard, maintain it well, and preserve the value of the grapes. Failure to cultivate the vineyard may have led to the confiscation of the vineyard.
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