Urban Tissue Typology and Urban Typology. Typo-morphology of the Cities in the Historic Hungary (1867-1918)
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Modernization and processes of urban transformation in the territory of Historic Hungaryl reached the (first) peak point in the era of Austria-Hungary (1867 — 1918). A significant part of urban heritage nowadays was presented by urban fabrics (morphological regions) that were shaped in this period. In the thesis the aim of taxonomic designation of Austro-Hungarian (dualist)2 towns and urban tissues is intended to describe and evaluate the town building activity of the era, since its recognition and processing was not already made. The reference period is a complex era of European history and its direct impact upon urban fabric/urban tissue heterogeneity and structure complexity can be perceived. The urban analyses explore the town types, as well as the spatial relationships within the settlement borders. The research also points out the unity creating nature of the era and determines the driving forces of the period's development tendencies via urban tissue types. The research and establishment of urban determination taxonomy deals with the territory of Historic Hungary as a whole between 1867 and 1918, therefore the thesis makes possible the uniformed evaluation and demonstration of results of urban development and amelioration. Post-agreement Austria-Hungary achieved a relatively unified approach to urbanization and industrialization, yet faced significant concurrences in the resulting urban tissue, that remained in different parts of the Imperial territory. Due to the significant deviation and similarities at the same time of the two member monarchies, the research is primarily focused on the territory of the Historic Hungary (1867-1918)3, but also takes into account selected towns in the territory of the former Austrian Empire, in order to show the urban manifestation of the combined power of Austria-Hungary. The research seeks to identify the similarities and differences in the urban tissue created over the period 1867-1918: particularities of the complex system of towns in the Historic Hungary can be defined more appropriately by examination and comparison with the selected towns in the Austrian Empire, which shows in a wider context the system of structural changes established in the dual-monarchy. The dissertation presents the system of structural changes in a complex way via comparison of the towns in the former Historic Hungary and comparison of Austro-Hungarian towns. The aim of the analyses and designation is to systemize the new urban tissue types developed as result of progressive urbanisation, and define the urban types of the dual-monarchy with further organization and combination of the urban tissue types. 1 Historic Hungary between 1867 and 1918. 2 The "dualist" expression and categorization does not refer to the political manner of these towns, but refer to the territorial unity: towns in the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 3 In further text Historic Hungary (1867-1918) is going to be used as Historic Hungary.