Bioactivities and potential beneficial properties of propolis ethanolic extract, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, and Arabic coffee beans extract
Alfarrayeh Ibrahim Ismail Sallam
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In recent years, the biological activities of natural products have received much attention because of the increasing interest in human health (Bernardini et al., 2018; Er, 2021; Gyawali and Ibrahim, 2014; Kokoska et al., 2019; Okińczyc et al., 2020). One of the most important natural products that are commonly used for their antimicrobial properties is propolis. It is produced by honeybees from resins and plant exudates. Plants protect themselves from pathogenic microbes primarily by producing secondary metabolites termed phytochemicals, many of which have been isolated and used in medicine for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Berretta et al., 2020). Phytochemical compounds that are promising as antimicrobial agents in humans include all components of propolis (Tiku, 2018). These antimicrobial properties can be recognized by honeybees, which selectively collect these plant products and process them to make propolis (Berretta et al., 2020).