Mozgászavarok klinikai vizsgálata
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Movement disorders refers to diseases of the central nervous system where the movement is disrupted and/or involuntary abnormal movements occures, while the sensory and primary motor functions relatively well. The most common forms of involuntary movements are tremor, tikk, korea, dystonia, and parkinsonism. In most cases damage to the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or cerebellum is responsibel for the appearence of the symptoms. Before James Parkinson the Hungarian Ferenc Pápai-Páriz has already described four basic symptoms of the disease: tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and slowless of movement (1). James Parkinson published the disease description first in 1817 (2). The Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s (3). The symptoms of the disease are typical of the older age, but younger patients are becoming more common nowdays (4). PD is slightly common in men and the rate of illness increase with age (5). The cause of PD is not yet known. Pathophysiologically, decay of the substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic cells, and α-synuclein-containing Lewy-bodies appeare at different part of the nervous system. In addition to genetic factors and mitochondrial dysfunction, environmental factors also play a role in the development of PD. Other predisposing factors may include pesticides, head injuries, air pollution, and certain toxins. Caffeine and high uric acid levels may reduce the chance of PK formation. (3, 6).