A humán papillomavírus kóroki szerepe a hímvessző daganatokban
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Penile cancers are one of the rare forms of oncological diseases, as in developed countries, their prevalence is less than 1%. Epidemiological studies carried out among patients with penile tumour revealed a total of 6 risk factors, which, if present, significantly increase the chance of developing cancer compared to the background population. These factors are: phimosis, smoking, chronic infection (balanoposthitis, balanitis xerotica obliterans), the presence of viral papillae (HPV-infection), sporalene and UV-A phototherapy, promiscuity. Epidemiological studies also suggested the role of oncogen HPV-types as a pathogenic cause of penile tumours. Currently available literature data explain HPV-induced tumours with the integration of virus into the epithelial cells, and its genetic manipulation of the host DNA. A 2009 review published by Backes and co writers showed that around 40% of patients with penile cancer had also been affected by HPV, among them subtype 16 was the most prevalent from. Another interesting fact is that HPV-infection is much more frequently associated with certain types of penile cancers (e.g. basaloid, condylomatosus 76%), than other cancerous manifestations, (e.g. verrucosus carcinoma 24,5%).